Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Seal Up Individuals Cracks and Holes Inexpensively and Fast in order to save Lots of Profit Ac

Making your house air tight is among the most economical methods to maximize energy efficiency. Regardless of how well your house is insulated, if you will find cracks and holes, the environment you simply taken care of to warmth or awesome will rapidly be lost. But air sealing is simple and fairly low as lengthy you may already know what areas to judge. In the following paragraphs we mainly consider the utilization of caulk to create quick repairs to leaking areas. On top of that, you don't need to become an skilled builder to have the ability to do that. One note of caution though that this isn't the very best mid-day activity related to your kids. Caulk can be very tacky and untidy and may rapidly ruin some nice clothes. Leave the painting and garden activities for your children.

Because the seasons and weather changes, cracks and gaps will expand and shut permitting undesirable air to infiltrate, conditioned air to pass through and moisture to leak in to the home. This could result in many problems for example mold, breezes, and warmth loss during the cold months season or grow in the the several weeks. This expansion and contraction may also result in various other cosmetic problems for example cracking fresh paint or trim slighly moving.

Leaks could be closed with caulk, spray foam or maybe even weather draining based on around the problem area. A great guideline is by using caulk for holes more compact than 1/4-inch, and foam for bigger cracks and gaps, though each condition can differ. Using the foam you will find two popular ones in the your home improvement store in blue and red-colored cans. One grows a lot more compared to other. Make sure not use the one which grows more in tight spaces as it can certainly literally push apart things. So, for home windows and door trim, unless of course the gaps are huge, it generally best to choose the less expansive one. We'd recommend checking these areas in your house:

Around the outdoors of your house home windows and doorways happen to be an issue area. Insulate round the frame using the low growing foam insulation. You may also caulk in the frame and drywall/trim intersection. For the home windows you can look at adding storm home windows to single pane models as this helps using the home windows keeping temperature may it be hot or cold. Another key area are wall penetrations for example pipes, vents, exhausts, air intakes, etc. You will wish to caulk round the perimeter of exterior wall penetrations. Finally, review your trim as it can certainly frequently be improperly installed. Caulk round the perimeter of trim, and trim/siding crossing points.

Once we switch in to the interior of your house we'll begin with your home windows and doorways just like we did using the outdoors tasks. Home windows and doorways will have to be caulked in the frame and drywall/trim intersection. For the doorways, weather draining can produce a massive difference around every side of the doorway trim. For the home windows the typical suspect may be the seal at the end from the window and also the window frame. Here you are able to install weather draining as needed. A typical skipped area is the loft entry way if it's around the interior of the living areas. It is really an easy place to add insulation and/or gaskets/weather draining.

Getting into your bathrooms we'll attack the tubs and showers. Caulk at shower/tub and wall intersection and round the plumbing fixture border. Make sure to consider the pipes and tubes for the toilets and sinks. Caulk any type of wall penetrations and wrap cold or hot water pipes with insulation that is super easy to complete. Make sure you tape all of your duct joints and seams. You may want to go below your house for those who have a crawl space for that pipes.

For that other general areas of the house remember your lights, shops, light switches as well as your fire place for those who have one. For the shops and switches you are able to install a simple gasket that matches behind home plate and you may fill in the region behind home plate and around your electrical plate with low-growing foam. For that lights you are able to caulk round the trim. If at all possible you need to install light fittings or enclosures which are called airtight fittings. Finally, your fire place is usually best handled by sealing the chimney when it's not in use. This can be done together with your damper being set to closed or, you are able to install a blow up chimney balloon blocker. You might want to consider setting up gasketed doorways towards the fire place opening.

We briefly discussed the cellars . and crawlspaces in the end were wrapping the cold and hot water pipes. While you are under there, caulk or foam in the foundation wall & rim joist intersection and seal any cracks or joints within the foundation walls.

Most older houses won't have the problems to be too airtight, as there's always certain to be sufficient cracks and air leaks to help keep a proper degree of outdoors circulation. If you're worried about this problem, or are creating a new tight home, you are able to install outdoors air intakes to become linked to your Air conditioning to usher in a stable exchange of recent and stale air.

If you are unsure about in which you need sealing, you can test the DIY approach to checking your home having a lit incense stick - first switch off your Air conditioning and then any running fans and shut all home windows and doorways, then go ahead and take lit stick near any suspect leak, when the incense smoke is drawn in or amazed then you need confirmed your leak. Also, if you notice any dirty spots on loft insulation, or grime around any perimeter wall, window or door, then you definitely most likely possess a leak. A much better confirmation is always to have an energy audit, an auditor/inspector can perform a number of tests as well as use infrared cameras to identify leaks, moisture and air infiltration and never enough insulation. In certain areas of the nation it's quite common for that electric companies for this audit totally free. However, a completely independent audit professional will normally become more experienced and have the ability to recommend local assets or companies to deal with the person trouble spots.

Fort Worth Houses

Monday, May 20, 2013

Why and just how to set up a Performance Cold Air Intake

Why use a cold air intake? The idea behind this really is simple, greater an electric train engine needs to try to get air with the intake tubes and air conditioning filter, the greater gas will get wasted along the way. Therefore you have to let your engine just as much air because it wants. So why wouldn't you just switch the OEM filter having a performance filter? Because limitations can exist involving the air conditioning filter and also the engine reducing the advantage of a performance filter. The poorest link within the air flow "chain" sucks an automobile of their natural horsepower. Frequently that weak spot may be the factory air path resulting in the engine. A top quality air intake package virtually removes air path restriction by changing the air conditioning filter and also the entire air road to the engine. The reason behind cold air is straightforward. Cooler air is denser than warmer air and can expand more when it's heated. This will cause a larger "explosion" inside your engine leading to more energy. That is what you desired to listen to right? More energy! A chilly air intake is made to take air in in the point underneath the hood in which the air would be the best and also to remove as numerous limitations in the ventilation as you possibly can. Lots of people report a rise in gas mileage after installation. When you will not look for a manufacturer who'll guarantee this, the greater efficient fuel burn and greater "explosions" allow you to observe how a rise in gas mileage is certainly possible. Plus, they provide an awesome "throaty" seem. Only a slight deep rumble throughout acceleration to help remind you and also to allow everybody else realize that your ride can certainly talk the talk and walk the walk.

Why K&N? Because who much better than the inventor. K&N Engineering, situated in Riverside, California, may be the inventor and leading innovator of multiple-use cotton gauze filter technology for automotive programs. From humble origins like a family run business over 35 years back, K&N Engineering, now a really global company with offices in america, U.K. and also the Netherlands, is constantly on the exist like a family possessed business by having an enthusiast mindset along with a direct reference to motor sports that carries over throughout all amounts of management and manufacturing.

Today, K&N is available as both sales and brand leader for performance filters, and keeps a stocking catalogue well over 3,500 part amounts, including a comprehensive type of both factory alternative drop-in filters, FIPK (Fuel Injection Performance Package) programs, and it is type of innovative Performance Gold oil filters.

We find the 77 Series Intake Package. Like the majority of customers we loved how a polished aluminum finish looks. This package posseses an extra-large high-flow conical air conditioning filter made to provide elevated area and mud capacity. The additional area provides much more air flow at lower restriction since it is not restricted to how big the factory air box. The oversize air conditioning filter also captures more grime which boosts the service existence before each cleaning is needed (as much as 100,000 miles). Our package incorporated a warmth shield made to seal from the hood and isolate the environment intake from engine warmth. Supplying cooler air towards the engine will raise the horsepower that's produced. K&N kits use plugs produced from high strength materials for example plastic and strengthened nylon material to make sure a lengthy existence. Their kits even come standard with powder covered steel brackets and when the instructions aren't within the box just check the website for any PDF version.

Is that this a DIY project? This really is certainly something that you can do within an hour approximately. In case your uncomfortable, don't stress, your auto technician are designed for it. Disconnect the negative battery cable and also the mass air sensor. Take away the engine cover, disconnect the crank situation vent hose, take away the stock intake tube, and air cleanser set up. The mass air sensor may be the only factor you'll reuse coming from all this. Install the filter adapter, "L" bracket, and edge trim around the new warmth shield. Take away the grommets the air box was mounted to. You need to test fit the warmth shield and mark for any new mounting hole. Drill hole, place new mounting grommets and secure the warmth shield. Install the silicone hoses around the filter adapter and throttle body. Install the mass air sensor set up around the silicone hose around the filter adapter and also the bump hose. Install the intake tube between your mass air sensor and also the throttle body. Install the brand new crank situation vent hose between your vent and also the fitting around the intake tube. Install the K&N filter, engine cover and reattach the mass air sensor plug and negative battery cable. As well as your installation is finished. Our total install time was around an hour . 5. We chuckled concerning the fact it required us longer to obtain our tools together of computer did to set it up. We did not possess a drill or bit on-site also it required around an hour and forty-5 minutes to obtain one collected up.

I must say K&N Engineering provided the very best instructions I've ever employed for a task of the type. These were well crafted, incorporated pictures as well as suggested testing methods. Overall I am giving K&N an enormous A+ for everything.

Exactly what does the dog owner think? He stated "To tell the truth I've not even attempted to ascertain if I possibly could tell a positive change since the streets happen to be wet." That I responded "Bring your secrets and meet me within the parking area.Inch We do not have an expensive test driving facility yet but there's a lengthy, straight, flat, stretch of highway not not even close to work. There is no traffic, so he nailed it and that i was impressed. Following a couple of passes we made the decision it may be time revisit our real life. In route back to work he stated, "At 55 miles per hour whenever you punch it to pass through someone you are not left wanting there is more. This is when you see a dark tone difference too. At idol it had been difficult to tell however when you stomp it, it certainly includes a much deeper rumble." We havenrrrt heard of gas mileage. We have not had an opportunity to make sure that. That isn't why he wanted a K&N Cold Aid Intake he wanted it just for what she got more energy.

Kudos to K&N Engineering from AutoTruckToys.com. Our hats are off and away to you.

Friday, May 17, 2013

96 97 98 99 Chevrolet Suburban/Tahoe All Models with 5.0L/5.7L V8 Heat Shield Cold Air Intake + Red Filter HSICH3R from Click 2 Go

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Thursday, May 16, 2013

The advantages of a totally free Standing Ac

Free-standing ac, since it's title signifies, is definitely an independent unit with blower, compressor along with other electric products. Free-standing air conditioning units are ideal for individuals who wish to keep many places of the houses or offices awesome. 

Every free-standing ac has a built-in washable filter that may easily remove as much as 65 pints of moisture each day from the 400 sq . ft . room. A few of these models have continuous on switch with 1 to 12 hour digital timer configurations with handheld remote control. So in whole they are ideal for cooling the area any time. Furthermore, their smooth moving casters help to make moving the system in one room to a different with fresh and awesome air. 

You have to however keep in mind that unlike split air conditioning units as well as window air conditioning units they're more noisy because the entire unit is within your room. However, they're handy portable solution without any permanent installation. To allow them to be moved in one room to a different as well as spot to another with no extra efforts. 

Many of these free-standing air conditioning units focus on self evaporating technology. They are made to provide quiet and efficient cooling to your rooms, without any permanent installation. Technically, everybody focus on refrigeration cycle with fan and compressor. So throughout the cooling process, water is removed in the air in to the unit. The majority of this water will be recycled and accustomed to awesome the system making it run more effectively. 

In nearly every free-standing ac most water (approximately. 65-70%) condensed is evaporated by helping cover their the exhaust air, reducing the irritation of draining water tank constantly. 

Another striking feature of these air conditioning units is the fact that every unit includes a built-in water tank, mostly fixed, having a drain outlet and water tube. Once the tank fills, the compressor stops operating and also the energy light will expensive. This signifies the tank ought to be purged. Nonetheless, this doesn't happen with each and every model, as some models are automatic functioning, which means you have the freedom associated with a additional problems to empty the tank occasionally. 

As everyone knows that air conditioning units can be used for cooling and dehumidifying the living area. Just about all ac equipment usually cuts down on the humidity from the air processed through the system. The relatively cold (underneath the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor in the processed air, similar to a chilly drink will condense water around the outdoors of the glass. Water is drained, getting rid of water vapor in the cooled space and therefore lowering its relative humidity. 

Some ac models dry the environment without cooling it. These work just like a normal ac, with the exception that a warmth exchanger is positioned between your intake and exhaust. In conjunction with convection fans, they acquire a similar comfortableness being an air cooler in damp tropical environments, only consume about one-third the power. Individuals who discover the draft produced by air chillers uncomfortable also prefer them. 

So free-standing ac models are utilized when we have to change that unit in one spot to another, sometimes more cooling needed on some particular space as with bars and restaurants. So regardless of, where and why, you are able to seize control of the indoor temperature with this particular portable ac. 

They're also efficient at dehumidifying an area, so may be used effectively at your house . also. For instance, use a portable room ac to maintain your bed room awesome during the night as well as to help keep computer room or study room awesome and dry. Additionally, they're great to awesome lower attics or upstairs rooms. And last although not minimal, remember when you will find no home windows these free-standing windowless air conditioning units will also be ideal for a workplace or room.

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Various kinds of Roof Vents

The key to your house is the rooftop. It safeguards you against the rain, the snow and other things that Nature dishes out. Without them, we're omitted within the cold - literally. When building, or purchasing, a house, you need to make certain the roof is who is fit. Probably the most main reasons of roofing is sufficient ventilation.

Potential Issues

The possible lack of ventilation causes moisture to develop and perhaps cause structural issues with the rooftop. Additionally, making certain that the roof is correctly ventilated will raise the existence of the roof and promote the security of everybody in your house. Additionally, developed moisture and warmth could cause extra cooling expenses, which boosts energy costs. Moisture may also cause ice dams along with other problems, including decaying and fungus.

Various kinds of Roof Vents &lifier Roof Ventilation

You will find various roof vents available, including Dormer and Turbine. The most crucial factor to think about, when selecting one, may be the actual ventilation system. Proper ventilation systems will contain the next two kinds of vents:

Intake Vents.

These vents allows outdoors to get involved with the house.

Exhaust Vents.

These allow air to depart the house.

To ensure that any ventilation system to operate, both intake and exhaust vents should be installed. When correctly installed, the ventilation system allows outdoors to go in the house while delivering other air outdoors.

Calling The Experts

Depending on the area that you live, an expert roofer will have the ability to counsel you on the different sorts of roof vents and that is more appropriate for your house. Certain kinds of roof vents are superior to others, with respect to the roof's structure or style. Cathedral roofs, for instance, would need a ridge vent for correct ventilation whereas some houses are the best suited having a turbine vent, with a free spinning top permitting air circulation out.

Various kinds of Roof Vents &lifier Roof Durability

If your roof is correctly ventilated, it may boost the durability of it's structure. This can save you a lot of money later on by not needing to purchase another roof. If your house is not correctly ventilated, the moist air has nowhere to visit. Because it sits within the home, it will start to cause harm slowly and gradually. Although it might not be noticeable in the beginning, time can have that damage is happening and, the more a roof goes without correct ventilation, the more serious effect it'll have around the structure of your house.

Sunday, May 12, 2013

Thermal Regulation, Protective Apparel and Heat Stress - The Exogenous Factor

Whether it's today's chemical, biological agent scare or tomorrow's first responder call, firefighters are among the chosen few who continually play Russian Roulette with their health each time they don their hazardous material suit or turnout gear and head into disaster. Each year governing committees amend standards to improve protective equipment. Yet, in spite of these good intentions, protective fabrics place an immeasurable health risk on the human body. As enigmatic as the term "heat stress" is, so is a "cure-all" solution.

Firefighters, EMTs and other first responders are well versed on the facts and remedies of the minor heat illness occurrences... heat rash, heat cramps, tetany (painful muscle spasms caused by faulty calcium metabolism or diminished parathyroid function), heat syncope (fainting) and heat exhaustion. But, it's the obscure damage that one serious heat related incident as heat stroke can cause that is shrouded in obscurity. In a 1995 Occupational Medicine article, the Cancer Registry of Norway reported a correlation between the incidence of kidney cancer and both exposure and cumulative exposure to working in hot environments and volatiles some 20 to 35 years before observation. The main findings of this study revealed heat stress and kidney cancer in the group with at least three years of total employment. A quote from this study stated, "increased risk of kidney cancer has been reported from previous studies of workers in aluminum smelters and other hot environments such as foundries and coke ovens".

Studies published in the American Journal of Medicine suggest that Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and a variety of other critical conditions associated with ARDS are also linked to heat stroke. Recently, the Center for Disease Control revealed astounding facts about Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) that resembles the chronic effects of an individual who survives heat stroke, but it doesn't end there. Medical research hints a correlation between continual exposure of heat to the body that forces the individual to near exhaustion usually results in mild to serious physiologic and neurologic aftereffects. Typically described as exhaustion and poor stamina, the underlying factor in both a severe heat illness and CFS is their pathology involving our body's cellular energy "storehouse".

Research cannot well define the dysfunction of our body's immune system when it is broached by a disruption caused by severe heat. It does, however, intimate that as our body experiences this severe disruption, our natural killer cells that fight viruses can be suppressed or deficient, compromising our immune system. Commonalities discovered between CFS and sequelae (the medical term for recurrent complications frequently noticed in individuals who recover from a severe heat illness) are:
-overall muscle discomfort, flaccid muscles, headaches and weakness
-sleep disturbances or hypersomnolence (requiring excessive sleep hours and naps)
-spatial disorientation, light headedness and dyslogia (speech impairment, reasoning, memory loss
and/or the ability to concentrate)
-chills and night sweats (a thermoregulatory problem)
-skin sensitivity and sensitivity to heat and cold
-irregular heart beat and recurrent chest and/or abdominal pain
-lowered tolerance to alcohol, irritable bowel and/or diarrhea
-weight fluctuation and menstrual cycle disruption

Our bodies are truly a complex chemical, electrical and biological organism. In the early stages of a severe heat illness, at the cellular level, tremendous hyperactivity and abnormalities are taking place. Excessive heat exposure radically denatures proteins, lipoproteins and phospholipids; it liquifies membranes and provokes electrolyte abnormalities that ultimately leads to cardiovascular collapse, multi-organ failure and finally death. Lipids (one of the principal structural materials of living cells) are transported by the lipoproteins throughout the blood, so disruption of our cells is most definitely not a good thing. As we destroy the lipo-proteins that sheath the myelin in the neurotransmitters (nerve fibers), we impair our communication central processing system. Potassium is essential for muscular contraction and function of the heart, skeletal and smooth internal organ muscles, as well as the osmotic pressure and ionic electrical balance. As heat stress persists, potassium levels peak and wane as muscle damage occurs. As these minerals work together to facilitate one another, abnormal levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphates could become significant enough to cause hypertension (persistent high blood pressure), cardiac arrhythmias or tachycardia (irregular or elevated heart rate) or be the precursor to mild stroke and require immediate treatment.

As our electrolytes become imbalanced, the onset of vomiting and diarrhea can occur. If excess sweating has occurred, the level of sodium usually measures high unless plenty of water without sodium replenishment was previously ingested. Sodium helps maintain osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid, gastrointestinal absorption of certain sugars and proteins, cell permeability and muscle function. Liver damage is a consistent finding and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is very common and may be incited by liver failure.

Hemodynamic reports (the study of the forces involved in blood circulation) reveal in severe dehydration cases, abnormal coagulation occurs altering amino acids and causes cerebral edema (excess fluid in the brain cells or tissues). Prolonged intravascular coagulation or loss of blood to the lungs incites damage to the lung tissues and may predispose people to develop pulmonary problems like ARDS. Once this occurs, individuals require more positive inhalation pressure via mechanical ventilation.

Serious heat damage to the body is often associated with endotoxemia (the presence of endotoxins in the blood and tissues) that form an integral part of the cell wall of certain bacteria and are released when the cell destructs. Blood hemorrhaging in the skin (red bumps) can occur followed by blood in the urine. As dehydration increases, the viscosity of the blood changes (from oxygen rich, easily perfused fluid to a sludge-like substance). Vascular tone and capacity, in turn, alter blood pressure and cardiac output. If left untreated, the heart becomes tired and quits. Neurologic complications vary from mental disorientation to delirium, unconsciousness, convulsions or a comatose state (displaying similar symptoms to that of sustaining a serious head injury). Those individuals may require tomography scans to determine the level of Central Nervous System (CNS) damage.

Nerve damage can be as subtle to recovering heat stroke victims as partial or permanent anhidrosis (cessation of sweating). From thereon, the individual's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium may be compromised, especially when faced with heat stress conditions. Irreparable damage to the body's heat-dissipating bodily mechanisms may be noted along with muscle coordination may be weak and affected in some or all quadrants of the body. One's equilibrium and hand-eye coordination may be off. In some cases, lack of nerve conductivity in the lower limbs may also be noted.

Neurologic disorders during the progression of heat related illnesses are further complicated by release of adrenaline (epinephrine- the most potent stimulant of our sympathetic nervous system). Adrenaline stress is extremely prevalent in high-risk occupations where tension, fear, anger, excitement and life threatening situations occur. Release of adrenaline changes the physiological responses and causes a magnitude of complex reactions including, but not limited to increased blood pressure, heart rate and force of blood vessel contraction, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscles and other metabolic effects. According to John LoZito, Neurologist, a release of some adrenaline is good, but needless adrenaline incites hyperactivity akin to dropping a fuel drum on a bonfire further increasing susceptibility for more serious maladies: stroke, cardiac stress, etc.

Extreme dehydration causes retention of carcinogens and an imbalance of myoglobin (oxygen carrying proteins) in prominent organs like the bladder and colon. Progressive loss of fluid prevents diluting and flushing of these toxins, predisposes one for constipation and urinary tract infections, as well as bladder and colon cancer. Kidney stones may form more readily as calcium, uric acid and other substances become concentrated and form crystals due to fluid loss. Advanced heat stress damage incites sudden rhabdomolysis and intramuscular necrosis (destroying skeletal muscles and decay of muscle tissue also known as muscle wasting).

Researchers have long purported good fluid intake neutralizes the cavity causing acids, flushes away sugar and inhibits the microorganisms that cause gum disease and other oral hygiene problems. For individuals afflicted with asthma, drying of the nose membranes, throat and lung tissues presumably incite more asthma attacks than with hydrated tissues or humid weather. Dehydration, measuring as little as one percent of one's body weight in non-heat stress conditions can be the cause for headaches, fatigue, muscle cramps and the overall "blah" feeling. A net water loss of as little as four percent of one's body weight can cause blood pressure to plummet quickly. These and a host of other disorders make simple nausea and headaches just a walk in the park.

The typical information from organizations like the National Institute of Health, OSHA, NIOSH, CDC, Worksafe Australia and others do not reflect the pathophysiology of how heat stress affects our body at the cellular level. Medical science has just begun to unravel the baneful mysteries of bodily reaction to heat, unfortunately many times after the fact.

The Effects of Medication and Drugs:
The picture becomes more complicated when diet pills, diuretics, over-the-counter cold and flu remedies, and pain medication have been ingested on individuals succumbing to a heat stress illness. Antihistamines, decongestants and remedies containing alcohol act to dry up the mucous membranes and decrease sweat gland secretion, causing further dehydration. Caffeine and herbal stimulants incite the bladder and heart rate, while sleep aids can dull the senses and motor skills and can linger in the body for as long as 24 hours. Individuals diagnosed with diabetes, hypoglycemia or anemia and other undetected maladies (atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases) negatively alter the equation for maintaining thermal regulation. Age, malnutrition, impaired health, adiposity (excess body fat), prior fatigue, lack of proper sleep, or previous or repeated episodes of heat-related illnesses all play a vital role in predisposing individuals to the negative effects of heat stress. Individuals with a previous head injury or nerve damage, underactive thyroid, hypertension or smoke heavily are potentially more susceptible to heat stress.

During the past decade, I have collected data from innumerable sources: pathology and medical reports, insurance and government labor statistics, Department of Defense (DOD) and University sponsored epidemiological studies on Gulf War soldiers, and a myriad of information from institutes around the world. All have revealed astonishing facts. The most notable fact is best stated by my long-time mentor, John LoZito, Neurologist who tutored me for several years... "what heat stresses and negative pressures your body tolerates today are not necessarily the same levels that your bodily functioning mechanisms will tolerate tomorrow... or the day thereafter."

More than two decades ago, I was a small business owner. Every day I dressed in expensive clothing, sat behind an over-sized desk and dealt with the general public from a nice air-conditioned office. Each week I faithfully attended Rotary Club meetings and networked with other business associates at all the right social events. I was a member of the Better Business Council, taught a business course at a junior college and donated more than my share of hours of community service. And one night I changed from the dress ensembles to Levi's and tee-shirts and joined my soul mate in a research and development venture to solve heat stress problems for the U.S. Armed Forces. The project initially sounded reasonable. Create a passive means of keeping ground soldiers cool, especially in desert warfare conditions, without using electricity and encumbering mechanical devices like pumps and batteries that were prone to fail at critical times. The end result must be a man portable device with temperatures that would be tolerated by the body without negative physiologic reaction.

We examined a variety of patented devices, amassed data from previous test contingents - case studies on battlefield soldiers, firefighters, miners, roughnecks, helicopter pilots, off-shore powerboat and super bike motorcycle racers, and a host of other subjects who were required to wear protective apparel under normal work conditions, many while conducting high metabolic activity in high heat indexes. We evaluated numerous laboratory test results of a variety of ice / gel, evaporative, vortex and water circulative technologies. Aside from the usual shortcomings of too cold of temperature to allow heat abstraction from an exothermic body or mechanical devices that failed at critical times, we elected to explore exotherm type, constant temperature phase-change technology. Little did we realize what a huge undertaking this project would become. During the three and a half years of research and development, I was fortunate to have been tutored by some terrific medical doctors. I spent an inordinate amount of time in sports rehabilitation facilities like Alabama Sports Medicine (where athletes earning seven figures go for major surgery), HealthSouth, and Atlantic Orthopaedic. My thirst for knowledge on this subject was not limited to humans. I also visited armed forces working dog kennels and Churchill Downs horse track in an attempt to better understand optimum healing temperatures.

According to the United States Sports Academy the perfect temperature for optimum healing in prolonged cryotherapy for return to function is 50 degrees F (10 degrees C). Devices that could maintain that temperature would not cause negative physiologic reaction, vasoconstriction, soft tissue damage, cold shock or frostbite. Rather, this temperature also thwarted the onset of histamine production, swelling and fluid retention to the affected tissue. Hence, this lead to a starting point for understanding how to reduce heat stress in humans by first understanding of how our bodies reacted to temperature variation. Further, I learned about the negative affects/effects prolonged heat exposure has to individuals afflicted with heat intolerant diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Ichthyosis and other neurological and related skin disorders that thwart an individual's ability to sweat or regulate their temperature naturally.

Today's Achilles Heel:
The serious heat related ailment is described as either Classic or Exertional Heat Stroke (EHS). The latter, common among firefighters and people who conduct high metabolic activity, is highly morbid. Classic Heat Stroke (CHS) is common among sedentary or elderly people, obese, chronically ill, or individuals with advanced heart disease who are exposed to high ambient temperatures, but aren't necessarily exercising in this environment. On the other hand, EHS is accelerated when personal protective equipment (PPE) alters the equation of balancing heat gain against heat loss in an incubative environment like firefighting, mining, smelting etc. EHS victims can display the same acute symptoms of classic heat stroke, but many may continue to sweat. Terms like micro-environmental temperature zone (MTZ), moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), intense temperature differential (ITD), sweat fog, work tolerance time (WTT), and latent heat of vaporization all work in concert against you when wearing impermeable chemical suits, turnout gear and a variety of protective fabrics with little or no porosity. Synonymous with HazMat suits, MTZ is defined as the continual rise in the temperature of the latent heat trapped inside the encapsulated apparel when caloric activity occurs and vaporization of moisture is not attainable, creating a thermal burden-the rainforest effect.

A major chemical corporation and the University of Central Florida conducted a 90-day test in a laboratory on how garments interfered with the body's cooling mechanisms. Different garments in weight and porosity were worn by subjects walking on a treadmill until their core temperature reached 101 degrees F. The conclusions - simple cotton clothing can inhibit the MVTR by as much as 20 percent, while fire retardant clothing (contingent upon its porosity, denier weight, color and chemical additive) increases the thermal burden and decreases the MVTR. Researchers continually strive to increase safety while reducing health risks associated with the wearing of protective fabrics.

While testing on treadmills may result in good data in controlled environments, walking on a treadmill in controlled conditions does not emulate the exacting metabolic stress on the body when lifting heavy objects in real life situations, further complicated by wearing protective apparel. A study of threshold limit values in the workplace reveal that even wearing the lightest of garments, heat stress threshold action limits (where individuals core temperature rises to 38 degrees C before requiring treatment) are exceeded in most U.S. cities each summer. The heat wave of July 1999 (in the chemical valley) in Sarnia, Ontario lasted for several days. Two workers lost their lives due to heat stroke while wearing protective coveralls as required by their occupation. Both individuals were in their middle ages and had previous exposure to this type of environment throughout theirworking career.

Balancing heat stress while complying with safety regulations is a dual edged sword. In July of 1998, at the Dothan, Alabama Fire Academy training grounds, I measured the intense temperature differential inside ten firefighters HazMat suits conducting routine chemical spill exercises on a hot 96 degree F day with 82 percent relative humidity. The asphalt temperature averaged 126 degrees F at 0930 hours to 132 degrees F at 1200 hours. The average ITD measured at least 20 degrees warmer than normal skin temperature inside their suits, creating an incubative environment for heat stress.

I define incubative environments as surrounding temperatures that breed heat stress in confined areas where moving air to assist in sweat evaporation, shade and other cooling means are not attainable. One such test I conducted was with the shuttle rescue Black Hawk helicopter crew stationed at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. These pilots have little means of recirculating cool air while flying nap of the earth at low altitudes. They must wear fire retardant flight suits, further reducing the MVTR as well as a full head helmet, trapping more heat that the body's radiator wants to dissipate. I suspected it would be a highly incubative environment and was interested in determining the ITD these pilots might experience on a normal mission.

The helicopter faced south to gain maximum UV exposure for the six-hour test. At 0800, I placed a sunscreen in the window and a thermometer on the floor shaded from direct sun. At 0900 hours, I took a digital reading of the outside air temperature (OAT) as 92 degrees F. At 0900, the inside thermometer shaded from direct sun measured 99 degrees F. At 1300 hours, the shaded thermometer read 108 degrees F. I removed the sunscreen and moved the thermometer to the seat exposed to direct sun. At 1303 hours, three minutes after removal of the sunscreen, the thermometer measured 115 degrees F. At 1306 hours, the thermometer measured 129 degrees F. Later that afternoon, after 30 minutes of flying into direct sunlight at an altitude of 1000 feet, the sustained cockpit temperature measured 109 degrees F where the OAT at that altitude measured 94 degrees F.

A few years ago, I attended a special military conference held at the U.S. Marine Corps Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) Headquarters at Indian Head, Maryland. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint the military with off-the-shelf solutions to the age-old problem of heat stress. Hence, I briefed key Marine Corps individuals about the most suitable solution- a myriad of HTF exotherm type cooling devices that had been scientifically proven to increase WTT by 22%, while maintaining normal body vitals, as possible solutions to heat stress for some in-field applications. After the bombing of Khobar towers in 1996, the joint armed forces employ more working canines on perimeter security patrol. Desert conditions pose an extreme health hazard to working dogs, as they do not have the bodily means to expel heat readily like humans. After a technology briefing and demonstration of the HTF exotherm technology, I was approached by an engineer from a company who was promoting their new ingestible, non-soluble "thermosensor" being tested by the Navy Seals. When swallowed, this device would directly transmit thermosensory information to the Corpsman when one's core temperature reached 39 degrees C.

The engineer purported that this device could be the answer to reducing heat stress in the field. So I asked him the proverbial question. "Let's say you're on a covert operation in Central America where the heat index averages 100 degrees F and higher. You're carrying only 40 pounds of weapons, radios and extra gear. You must keep your camouflage BDUs on for protection against insect bites, snakes and the like. The heat and humidity, coupled with simple walking in the jungle will increase your core temperature quickly, by one or more degrees. What will this thermosensor device accomplish if remedies can't be implemented the moment the alarm signals?" He replied that they conducted testing in a laboratory on treadmills. "Why the treadmill?" I asked. "Well, because it measures cardiovascular output."

In turn I asked, "have you ever watched a decon team wearing MOPP2/4 gear or JS-List Overgarments during a chem/bio warfare exercise lift the dead weight of an apparently unconscious 180 pound person lying on the ground and carry that individual to a decontamination tent some 40 yards away... and then do this hurriedly thirty or more times representing a bio-chemical agent incident?" Ah, no. "Are you aware of the exponential increase in metabolic energy required to lift an object versus just walking to increase one's heart rate?" Not really. "Do you know what bodily heat is trapped inside this chemical suit in a heat index of 95 degrees F when this individual is carrying people and breathing filtered air?" "No, but the sensor tells the individual to immediately hydrate." "Wouldn't he also have to be decontaminated first before breaking the veil and exposing himself to the environment which delays rehydrating?" He walked away in silence.

OSHA and other organizations purport utilizing measuring devices like Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and other heat stress monitoring equipment as a good means of knowing the environment you're facing. However, WBGT and other devices cannot measure the decrement in mental and physical performance that results in a lower margin of safety and increased potential of errors of pilots and other personnel when placed in incubative situations. Just as each of us are unique as our DNA, so will our WTT vary from day to day and task to task, especially so when protective apparel and nonporous fabrics are introduced in the equation.

Aboard the submarine tender the U.S.S. Frank Cable, due to heat radiating off the engines and equipment in their boiler/engine rooms and adjacent operational rooms, the sustained room temperature averages 96 degrees F to 99 degrees F on most days. The safety director at Electric Boat, builders of the Wolf Class submarine, report that their welders, plumbers and electricians were the top three job classifications to report recurrent heat stress illnesses. They predominantly worked in confined spaces the size of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging tube wearing fire retardant coveralls. During industrial training week in July 1996 at Texas A&M Firefighting Academy, I gained great empathy for the firefighters from Canada that were not acclimated to Texas heat and humidity. All seven first aid tents were kept busy ferrying heat stress cases to a more suitable location for treatment.

During February of 1998, I conducted six heat stress awareness seminars around Australia beginning in Perth, working my way around the continent to Sydney. During that time, I was invited to tour the world's largest deep copper mine in northwestern Queensland, in the heart of the outback. Mount Isa Mine mines four minerals in close proximity - copper, silver, lead and zinc where approximately 35,000 tons of ore are produced daily in this labyrinth whose tunnels extend well in excess of 500 km and at a depth well over 1760 meters. After completing a medical questionnaire, I rode the double-decker lift with 180 workers to the primary sub-level for my briefing. The first oral instruction was to advise me that the best temperature, as good as it gets, averages 41 degrees C year-round.... the kind of environment that incubates heat related illnesses. The previous day, during my on-site heat stress seminar, MIM ventilation coordinator Tony Nixon, reported 28 heat stress casualties occurred during January, almost one per day. To better comprehend work tolerance time, environmental temperatures, air current and other workplace variables, I had to experience it for myself. Although MIM boasts 19 shafts, 14 dedicated to ventilation, the temperature of the air blowing in the shafts was slightly warmer than average skin temperature so excess heat gained by convection was inevitable.

Donned in high denier coveralls and 18 pounds of equipment, I set out to explore the darkness over one mile down. Accompanied by a safety coordinator, we walked and rode in transport vehicles to expose me to a multitude of work situations. Occasionally, I would put on the filter mask to avoid breathing diesel fumes and fine particulate dust. The temperature was unforgiving. Near the stoking areas, the radiant heat approached 60 degrees C. Workers averaged 12 to 15 minutes in this sector, returning red-faced, drenched in sweat, fatigued and dehydrated. Had I not been wearing the HTF exotherm cooling solution of the armed forces research project, I too would have succumbed to heat stress after over four and one-half hours in that environment.

The Physiological Benefits of HTF (Heat Transfer Formula Exotherm) Cooling:
Based on substantial medical research, the unique Heat Transfer Formula (HTF) temperature of 55 degrees F for specific use in personal body cooling has unequivocally proven its effectiveness in greatly reducing the symptoms and effects associated with heat related illnesses. Primarily, this optimum temperature does not cause vasoconstriction or the "thermal shock syndrome" generally felt when exposed to the cold temperatures of ice and gel. Thermogenesis (rapid heat production through shivering) is not incited when this optimum temperature is held in close contact (thermal communication) with the body. Rather, this temperature allows for quick acclimatization, accompanied by a comfortable cool sensation felt on the peripheral skin areas, further inducing heat abstraction from the torso.

First acting as a heat sink, this 55 degree F temperature abstracts excess body heat gained through metabolic activity and/or micro-environmental temperatures created when donning personal protective apparel. The blood carried throughout the peripheral vessels and surrounding soft tissues expel the latent heat and become cooler as more and more heat is abstracted from the surface area. Consequently, recirculating cooler blood back throughout the venous return thwarts additional concomitant hyperactivity among the body's vitals required to meet the demands of thermal regulation. As cooler blood continually irrigates the cardiovascular system, less metabolic energy is required, slowing the activity of essential body vitals (blood pressure, heart rate, pulmonary output of increased oxygen demands) as well as the latent heat of vaporization (sweating). As sweating wanes, cellular metabolic activity is reduced and less electrolyte fluids and precious minerals are forfeited resulting in a prolonged endurance factor. Since no vascular constriction is occurring, proper oxygen flow is maintained for optimum muscle function, brain activity and CNS functions.

Akin to the radiator of an engine, the optimum temperature of 55 degrees F is the cooler receptor absorbing heat from the medium closest in proximity (the human body). In this example, as the body's engine cools, less heat needs to be expelled and less stress is placed on the engine itself. Clearly, the engine and its ancillary bodily functions operate more smoothly. As more hyperactive heat is exacted by the body's cooling mechanisms when attaining thermal equilibrium, an individual's vigilance and senses remain more acute. Individuals can focus more clearly on the task at hand, not being physiologically and psychologically distracted by the uncomfortable reactions their body is experiencing as a result of trying to attain or maintain thermal equilibrium.

According to John LoZito, Neurologist, utilizing the optimum temperature of 55 degrees F in as a body management device "helps maintain the body's 'vitals'... the first technology I've seen to work in harmony with physiology to cool both the mind and body. I find this technology especially effective in high risk occupations where 'adrenaline stress' adds further negative pressures to the already stressed individual."

Former Miami Dolphins trainer, Dr. Gary Berns states, "this technology uses safe, comfortable temperatures that work in direct correlation to our body's physiological, neurological and metabolic systems. As the body cooling device absorbs the excess heat from the chest cavity or extremity, the blood flow begins to cool. As the blood cools, the sympathetic system slows down the metabolism. We then vasodilate and decrease the sympathetic outflow and turn our body into a more calm, relaxed state further reducing body vitals, i.e. blood pressure and heart rate etc. Cooling the blood flow at its source with a higher temperature medium keeps the body from adversely reacting - fighting vasoconstriction by pumping more blood through the arterial system."

To further substantiate the effectiveness of "optimum temperature" body cooling, the U. S. Air Force Operations Test & Evaluation Center (AFOTEC), now located at Kirtland AFB New Mexico, in conjunction with Alamo Medical Research Institute conducted an extensive 10-day instrumented evaluation of this HTF Exotherm type cooling device. This technology was studied to determine the utility of these one-of-a-kind Heat Transfer Formula Exotherm Type body cooling devices for sole source inclusion for procurement worldwide. Ten male firefighters with medical clearance for unrestricted duty from San Antonio, Texas volunteered to participate in this study. Laboratory testing was conducted to baseline test participants' physical condition to quantitatively evaluate the physiological benefits of wearing the HTF constant temperature body cooling vests in high heat, high exertion environments versus not wearing a body cooling device.

The end report compared the work tolerance time (WTT) findings of wearing the HTF exotherm cooling device versus not wearing any cooling device as stated below.

AFOTEC Conclusions:
-A 22% increase in the firefighter's work time (WTT) performance was noted.

-No significant change in core body temperatures, blood pressure or heart rates.

-Reduced recovery time for those who put the vest on after completing task.

-Test participants comfort levels were rated higher.

-Slower build up of core body temperature.

Friday, May 10, 2013

80, 93, 95, Up, Lower and Horizontal - Helpful tips for Selecting Your Brand-new Alternative Furnace

When home owners are intending a furnace alternative purchase, you will find a couple of a quick question you need to be ready to answer to be able to obtain the correct furnace for the application.

1.What Efficiency will i need or want? (80%, 93% or 95%)
2.The way I vent the system (vent pipe or PVC)
3.Direction of Ventilation (Up, Lower or Horizontal)

Efficiency?
The fundamental three available options currently available are 80%, 93%, and 95%. It appears like a smart choice to find the greatest efficiency unit. It might appear so, but the truth is you have some options to create here. Conventional 80% gas furnaces are venting with standardized metal vent pipe flues and frequently require exit through roofing. The 80% furnace may be the cheapest cost reason for the furnace market, however with that cost point comes trade-offs. First of all is efficiency. An 80% efficient furnace is simply that, 80%. This means that 20% of each and every dollar of fuel that you employ to warmth your house is lost through burned exhaust gases. The 93% gas furnace is just about the popular furnace of preference for many home owners. Probably the most attractive options that come with the bottom level high quality furnace is its ventilation versatility. The 93% furnaces are known as "Condensing Gas Furnaces". They have primary and secondary warmth exchangers, which increase the efficiency and permit these models to become venting with standard plumbing type PVC plastic pipe, and could be venting in a number of designs, including the opportunity to exit a sidewall or basement foundation and vent directly in a horizontal run. This versatility in not needing to penetrate roofing materials is a superb advancement. Another noted benefit of the 93% efficient gas furnace may be the elevated savings which are accomplished. A 93% furnace is all about 14% more effective then your standard 80% version. This could associate to significant savings and despite the fact that the 93% high quality furnace is normally about 40% more costly then your 80% models, the recognized savings can certainly from the difference on the short time. The best choice are available in the 95% or more model gas furnaces that by description, seem to simply be a little more efficient then their 93% counterpart, but at closer look you will notice that this number of furnaces is within a category simply by theirselves. The ultra-high efficient 95% gas furnaces frequently are coupled with variable speed blower drives, two -stage gas valves and a number of other additions that does not only make these furnaces more effective, but much more comfortable together with generally being near quiet within their operation. Together with the twoPercent elevated base gas efficiency, two-stage gas procedures permit the unit to fun and fire in a considerably reduce rate throughout marginal outside temps. This increases the conserving energy bills. The variable speed blower drives not just increase comfort and efficiency of operation, but being that they are designed to "increaseInch and "ramp lower" throughout run cycles the standard ventilation that you simply hear with conventional ventilation systems is reduced. It's not uncommon for home owners never to hear theses unit run. These extended run cycles and variable ventilation also increases the efficiency of air conditional systems which are operated in conjunction with these furnaces. The cost reason for these optimum 95% furnaces could be 30%-40% more then your 93% single stage versions, however the added comfort and efficiency benefits have to be considered.
Ventilation:
As pointed out above, you will find multiple choices for ventilation your gas furnace and knowing what you would like as well as require is an important bit of the furnace choice. Metal or PVC? This alternative is dependent upon the efficiency from the furnace that you select as well as the restrictions you have together with your building structure. As mentioned above, 80% gas furnaces utilize standardized sheet metal vent pipe and therefore are normally venting through roof penetrations. In some instances, you might curently have a vent that you would like to make use of as well as your furnace choice might be determined with that ventilation material. The furnaces that classified and ranked at 90% and above normally utilize PVC pipe to exhaust the burned gases. The PVC venting furnaces offer greater versatility when ventilation, as with accessory for roof permeated ventilation, these furnaces may also be venting in horizontal directions, through sidewalls and basement fundamentals.
Direction of Ventilation:
This last bit of the furnace choice puzzle is crucial when selecting your furnace. Here are a few recommendations that will help you decide. Upflow - This kind of configuration is frequently present in basement locations. The return or intake air from the upflow furnace will enter in the bottom and also the supply air will flow from the top furnace after which be forwarded to duct and vents above. This configuration can be found on a single lave because the living area after which venting upwards and into ceiling registers or floor registers in upstairs rooms. Downflow or Counterflow - This kind of furnace is precisely because it sounds as compared to the upflow models. Return air or intake are is introduced in through the top furnace and flow the bottom. This kind of furnace is frequently in primary living areas and feeds vents in floor in addition to ceiling vents in 'abnormal' amounts. They may also be used in loft setting in which a downflow scenario is required. Horizontal - Frequently, the above mentioned pointed out upflow and downflow furnaces may also be set up inside a horizontal position. To visualise this, think about the furnace lounging on its side. Rather than up or lower, this configuration allow should be attracted into one finish and exhausted the other flat. This is often helpful in attics that have little height to support a standing furnace. They're also utilized in cellars . or root cellars which have lower then average ceiling levels which are not able to make use of the upright furnace.

When the options above appear confusing, speak to your home hvac expert before you purchase the next system. Most Air conditioning online stores have telephone numbers to or live help agents that will help you make a good options for your house.